Lithuanian historical cartography and cultural heritage. Web-site
Danguolė Mockienė  
place names

Before the start of globalization, there existed local culturally sustaining connections between geographical place and cultural experience. These connections constituted community’s ‘cultural identity’. This identity was something people simply ‘had’ as an inheritance, a path of continuity with the past. Identity, like language, was not just a description of cultural belonging; it was a sort of collective treasure of local communities. But it was also discovered to be something fragile that needed protecting and preserving, that could be lost.

The globalization has been judged as involving a general process of loss of cultural diversity.

In this paper the Lithuanian historical cartography is regarded as an issue of cultural heritage and cultural identity.

 The history of names of local places is the specific point of this work.

These names reflect historical changes in Lithuania during long period and represents different cultural influences. The illustrations are mainly ancient and contemporary (for comparison) maps.

Important historic heritage of Lithuanian arts and architecture are wooden churches.

The wooden churches were designed and decorated by local people and show the talents of the

corresponding times. Therefore pictures of wooden churches are included, too.

The main part of the web-site is unpublished manuscript about the changes of geographical names of 158 Lithuanian towns, small towns, and villages from 13 to 20 century. The results are presented in the form of 158 tables with geographical names from the original document and different maps.

The web-site is in two parts. Part one shows changes of names of towns and villages. Different towns and villages are presented by separate pages. In the part two some biographical data of Lithuanian cartographers is given.


The web-site is presented as a collection of illustrations: tables, digital maps, photographys with some explanations. The aim of the collection is to show geographical position of towns

including neighbors, historical data and interesting objects of culture and environment. That is done by different digital maps. The maps include hydrology, elevation (contour lines), national parks, restricted areas, roads, and boundaries.

Wooden churches, historical and cultural themes, scientists, public figures and artists, who were born or lived in this region, are presented as photographies accompanied by corresponding text.


ZARASAI
town


Geographic map of Lithuania
National land survey of Lithuania, 2001

The church Švč. Mergelė Ėmimo į dangų was built in 1878

Novoaleksandrovsk, 1898
Topographic map of Russia 1:42000. 1898

Jonas Deksnys. THE CHANGES OF PLACE NAMES FROM 13 TO 20 CENTURY

Unpublished manuscript was made 1930-1985.


ZARASAI


PLACE NAME

YEAR

REFERENCE


1522

(10) Aleksandrowicz St. Geneza i rozwoj sieci miasteczek Bialorusi i Litwy do pol. 17 w. "Acta Baltico-slavica VII, 1970. 

IEZIORASA

1613ž

(1) The Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1:300000. Drawn by T. Makovski. Carved by G.Hesel. Printed by V. Jansson, Amsterdam, 1613. This is the first original map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

JEZIOROSCE

1772ž

(2) Carte de la Pologne. Rizzi-Zanoni atlase 1:673000. Paris 1772.

JEZIOROSY

1819

(Te) The list of trianguliatio

NOVO-ALEKSANDROVSK


1836

(RA) Official place names of the administration of Empire of Russia. 1995-1914. 

Topographic map of Russia 1:42000. 1898

EŽERĖNAI

(Novoaleksandrovsk)

1900ž

(5) Map of the Latvian lands in Lithuanien. 1:840000. Made by A.Macijauskas. Saint Petersburg, A. Ilyin's cartography company, 1900. 

EŽERIŪNAI

1902

K.Jaunius

ZARASAI

1911ž

(6) Map of Lithuania with an ethnographic border. 1:1000000. Made by V.Verbickas. Published by "Lietuvos ūkininko" company. Saint Petersburg, Ilyin's cartography company, 1911

ZARASAI

1917ž

(7)  Carte de la Lithuanie 1:500000 Bureau d'Iinformation Lithuaniene Lausanne. Berne. 1917.

ZARASAI

1920ž

(8) Map of Lithuania hills and rivers and borders 1:630000. Made by P. Matulionis. Publiched by S.Schropp house, Berlin, 1920.

ZARASAI(Ežerėnai Novoalesandrovsk)

1923

(26) Place names of Lithuania. The data of first general census of the population in 1923. Kaunas, 1925

OSERSEE

1941ž

(VO) Official place names of Lithuania during the occupation of Germany in I and II World War. E.Horn, Verwaltkrt v. Litauen.1941.


ZARASAI

In 1596 Zarasai was mentioned among other settlements of Vilnius Diocese, and two years later it was named a rural district. In 1610 Grand Duke of Poland and Lithuania Zigmantas Vaza built a new church in Zarasai, and in 1613 the township was already marked on the map of the Lithuanian Duchy. However, further development and growth was a long process. An important event in Zarasai history was the construction of Kaunas-Daugpilis road in 1830-1836. Its completion led to livelier goods transportation and post-coach traffic, thus enhancing the role of Zarasai in communication and improving conditions for its development. In 1836, by the order of Czar Nicolai I, the district administration was moved from Vydžiai to Zarasai, the town was renamed Novoalesandrovsk and received its coat-of-arms. The next year the construction plan of Zarasai was approved

During the Independence years Zarasai district was four times smaller than during the czarist occupation. 

The district was remote from bigger cities, without railway, industry had no prerequisites for development. Only small enterprises, mainly for satisfying the local needs, were being set up in the district : private water mills, dairies sawmills, etc.
At the end of 1932 the future development of the district was changed with the new governor J.Šlepetys. Thanks to his wise management, an attractive recreation and tourism area was created. In a short period a municipality guest house was built with baths in the vicinity.

Two years later another municipality guest house, officially called a winter sports station, was finished. A new trade hall was constructed, a hospital was opened, new parks and pine woods were planted, a springboard was installed, together with a panoramic view, etc. The citizens could purchase summer cottage plots on special terms.

The region boasts of rich cultural heritage. At present one can find 30 historical monuments in the district: birthplaces or graves of famous people and monuments to them. The region territory contains 69 archaeological monuments: 29 mounds, 24 barrows, 10 ancient burial places, 6 archaeological stones. There are 14 architectural monuments and 71 valuable art works, most of them in churches. 3 state-owned, 5 public or private museums and an art gallery are open to visitors.
Evidently, the future of Zarasai district is development of tourism and recreation. In future Zarasai district will be the leader of recreational business in Eastern Lithuania, an attractive tourism site and a suitable place for short-term weekend trips or holidays.



Village Aviliai district Zarasai
The wooden church Šv. Kryžiaus Išaukštinimo was built in 1875.

Village Antazavė district Zarasai
The wooden church Dievo Apvaizdos was built
in 1794.

Village Baltriškės district Zarasai
The wooden church Šv. Kazimiero  was built in 1920.

The church Salakas district Zarasai was built in 1911.

Village Švedriškės district Zarasai
The wooden church Šv. Jono Krikštytojo was built in 1934



Small town Dusetos district Zarasai
The church Švč. Trejybės was built in 1888

Village Vajasiškis district Zarasai
The wooden church Šv. Jono Krikštytojo was built in 1863.

Village Imbradas district Zarasai
The wooden church Nukryžiuotojo Jėzaus was built in 1891.


District Zarasai
Vector data base LTDBK50000-V, Sheet Zarasai,  roads, forests, lakes and other land use borders. National land survey of Lithuania, 1998     
    

District Zarasai
Vector data base LTDBK50000-V,  Sheet Zarasai, contour lines and rivers. National land survey of Lithuania, 1998     
    

RASEINIAI

town


Geographic map of Lithuania
National land survey of Lithuania, 2001

Topographic map of Russia 1:42000. 1898

Raseiniai
The church Švč. Mergelės Marijos Ėmimo į dangų was built in 1729

Jonas Deksnys. THE CHANGES OF PLACE NAMES FROM 13 to 20 CENTURY

The unpublished manuscript was made 1930-1985.

RASEINIAI


Place name

Year

Reference


1253

Encyclopedia of Lithuania. Kaunas. 1933-41.

RUSSIGENA

1322

(SRP I II) Hirch-Toeppen-Strelke “Scriptores rerum Prussiearum”


ROSSEGENE


Codex diplomaticus ecclesiae cathedralis necnon dioeceseos Vilnensis/ Kodeks dyplomatyczny katedry i diecezji Wilenskiej. 1387-1468. Krakow, 1932

RUSSENIA, ROSSIGEN, RUSHIGEN

1377

(SRP II) Hirch-Toeppen-Strelke “Scriptores rerum Prussiearum”

ROSSYEYN

1385

(SRP w25)Hirch-Toeppen-Strelke “Scriptores rerum Prussiearum”

ROSEJNI, ROSSIJENY 

1575

(RŽK) Sprogis J. Geografičeskij slovar drevnej Žomoitskoj zemli 16 century. Vilna. 1888

ROSEIN

1595ž

Lithuania 1:30000. Made by G.Merkator. "Atlas sive cosmographical meditations". Duisburg, 1595

ROSEINI - SAMOGITIE

METROPOLIS

1613ž

(1) The Grand Duchy of Lihuania 1:300000. Drawn by T. Makovski. Carved by G.Hesel. Printed by V. Jansson, Amsterdam, 1613

ROS

1655ž

Atlas of V. Jansson.

ROSIENNE

1716ž

Poland and Lithuania. From J.B. Homann's "Atlas Novus", 1716. Published by the Lithuanian Information bureau in Lausanne. 

ROSIENE

1772ž

(2) Carte de la Pologne. Rizzi-Zanoni atlase 1:673000. Paris 1772. (2)

ROSSIENIE

1806ž

(R)Topogr. Special-Karte v. Mittel-Europa 1:200000 „Reymanno prad. 1806)

ROSSIENY



(4) Trechverstnaja topogr. karta Jevropejskoj Rossiji 1:126000.Berlin 1843

ROSSIENY


Topographic map of Russia 1:42000. 1898

RASEINIAI

1900ž

(5) Map of the Latvian lands in Lithuanien. 1:840000. Made by A.Macijauskas. Saint Petersburg, A. Ilyin's cartography company, 1900

RASEINIAI

1911ž

(6) Map of Lithuania with an ethnographic border. 1:1000000. Made by V.Verbickas. Published by "Lietuvos ūkininko" company. Saint Petersburg, Ilyin's cartography company, 1911

RASEINIAI

1917ž

(7) Carte de la Lithuanie 1:500000 Bureau d'Ie information Lithuaniene Lausanne. Berne. 1917

RASEINIAI

1920ž

Map of hills, inclination and borders of Lithuania. 1:630000. Made by  P. Matulionis. Published by S.Schropp, Berlin., 1920. (8).

RASEINEN

1941ž

(VO) Place names from maps made by  German  administration during the German occupation in First and Second World War.  E.Horn, Verwaltkrt v. Litauen.1941.

RASEINIAI
- town in the south eastern foothills of Žemaitija highland - is located some 5 kilometers from new Kaunas -Klaipeda highway.
The history of Raseiniai is quite old - the name of the settlement was mentioned for first time in 1253. In the 14th-18th century Raseiniai was one of the most important towns in Žemaitija region.
In 1831, an insurrection against Tsarist oppression began in Raseiniai.
On March 26, the rebels occupied Raseiniai and formed a provisional district government. Within a few days the insurrection spread throughout the  entire country - and was later known as the 1831 Rebellion.

Raseiniai was virtually ruined during the Second World War - approximately 90 percent of the buildings were destroyed.


District Raseiniai
Vector data base LTDBK50000-V, Sheet Raseiniai,  roads,  and  borders. National land survey of Lithuania, 1998     



Vector data base LTDBK50000-V, sheets -Gelgaudiškis,  Raseiniai - contour lines . National land survey of Lithuania, 1998

Vector data base LTDBK50000-V, Sheets - Betygala, Ariogal -,  contour lines.  National land survey of Lithuania, 1998     

Village Butkiškė  district Raseiniai
Thewooden church Šv. Jono Krikštytojo was built in 1939


Village Ugioniai district Raseiniai
The church Švč. Mergelės Marijos Ėmimo į dangų  was built in 1836

Small town Vidukle district Raseiniai
The wooden church Š. Kryžiaus was built in 1806 
place names